Philosophy Quiz Questions

“Something creates everything except itself” can best be symbolized (Cxy: x creates y) as

Multiple Choice

• ($x)(y)Cxy.

• ($x)[(y)Cxy • ~Cxx].

• ($x)[~Cxx • (y)(~y = x ? Cxy)].

• ($x)(y)Cxy • ($x)~Cxx.

Which of the following is the best translation into symbols of the sentence “All fickle people are difficult to please”? (Fx: x is a fickle person, and Dx: x is a person difficult to please.)

Multiple Choice

• (x)(Fx • Dx)

• (x)(Fx ? Dx)

• (x)Fx ? Dx

• (x)(Fx ? Dx)

When using the finite universe method for a two-object universe (containing a and b), the statement (x)Fx would be translated as

Multiple Choice

• Fa ? Fb.

• Fa • Fb.

• Fa.

• Fb.

When using CP or RAA, UG may not be employed under which of the following conditions?

Multiple Choice

• The instantial constant occurs in the assumption.

• The instantial constant occurs in any line of the proof.

• The instantial constant occurs in the last line of the proof.

• The conclusion of the argument is a conditional.

The finite universe method involves

Multiple Choice

• describing a possible situation where the premises of an argument are true and the conclusion of the argument is true.

• describing a possible situation where the conclusion of the argument is true.

• describing a possible situation where the premises are false.

• describing a possible situation where the premises are true and the conclusion is false.

Which of the following is an instance of (x)[Lx ? ($y)(Ly ? Gyx)]?

Multiple Choice

• La ? ($y)(Ly ? Gyx)

• La ? ($y)(Ly ? Gyb)

• La ? ($y)(Ly ? Gya)

• Lx ? ($y)(Ly ? Gyz)

In logicese, (x)(Fx • Gx) says

Multiple Choice

• everything is both an F and a G.

• anything that is an F is a G.

• for any x, if x is an F then x is a G.

• all Fs are Gs.

The inference from a = b and Fa to Fb is permitted by

Multiple Choice

• symmetry.

• identity.

• transitivity.

• Leibniz’s law.

Which of the following cannot be validly inferred from Ba ? Bb?

Multiple Choice

• ($x)Bx ? Bb

• ($x)(Bx ? Bb)

• ~~(Ba ? Bb)

• ($y)(Ba ? By)

Which of the following may be validly inferred from ~($x)Fx?

Multiple Choice

• (x)~Fx

• ($x)~Fx

• ($x)Fx

• ~(x)~Fx

All of the following are well-formed formulas of predicate logic except

Multiple Choice

• (y)(Ay ? ($y)By)

• ((y)Ay ? ($y)By)

• (y)(x)(Ay ? Bx)

• Ay ? Bx

From (x)($y)(Fx ? Gxy) we may validly infer

Multiple Choice

• ($y)(Fa ? Gay).

• (x)(Fx ? Gxa).

• ($y)(Fy ? Gyy).

• ($y)(Fa ? Gxy).

In which of the following is the variable “x” free?

Multiple Choice

• ($x)Fx • Gy

• ($x)(y)(Gy ? Fx)

• (x)((Fx • Gx) ? Hx)

• Fx • (x)(Gx ? Hx)

Which of the following can be inferred from ~a = b by symmetry?

Multiple Choice

• ~b = a

• a = ~b

• b = ~a

• ~b = ~a

When using the finite universe method for a two-object universe (containing a and b), the statement ($x)Fx would be translated as

Multiple Choice

• Fa ? Fb.

• Fa • Fb.

• Fa.

• Fb.

The identity rule allows us to

Multiple Choice

• infer that if a property belongs to a thing then it belongs to whatever is identical to that thing.

• enter statements of self-identity as lines in a proof.

• replace one constant or variable with another that is identical with it.

• switch the constants or variables in an identity statement (e.g., from a = b to b = a).

Where Lxy: x loves y, “Everyone loves someone” is best symbolized as

Multiple Choice

• (x)(y)Lxy.

• ($x)(y)Lxy.

• ($x)(y)Lyx.

• (x)($y)Lxy.

Which of the following is the best symbolization of “Every number is either odd or even”? (Nx: x is a number; Ox: x is odd; Ex: x is even.)

Multiple Choice

• (x)(Nx ? (Ox • Ex))

• (x)(Nx ? (Ox • Ex))

• (x)(Nx ? (Ox ?Ex))

• (x)(Nx • (Ox ? Ex))

When using reductio ad absurdum to prove (x)Fx ? ($x)Gx, we begin by assuming

Multiple Choice

• ~(x)Fx ? ($x)Gx.

• (x)Fx.

• ~((x)Fx ? ($x)Gx).

• (x)Fx • ~($x)Gx.

Which of the following is the best symbolization of “Nothing is unnatural”? (Nx: x is natural.)

Multiple Choice

• ~($x)Nx

• (x)~Nx

• ~(x)~Nx

• ~($x)~Nx

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