Philosophy

Philosophy Quiz Questions

“Something creates everything except itself” can best be symbolized (Cxy: x creates y) as
Multiple Choice
• ($x)(y)Cxy.
• ($x)[(y)Cxy • ~Cxx].
• ($x)[~Cxx • (y)(~y = x ? Cxy)].
• ($x)(y)Cxy • ($x)~Cxx.

 

Which of the following is the best translation into symbols of the sentence “All fickle people are difficult to please”? (Fx: x is a fickle person, and Dx: x is a person difficult to please.)
Multiple Choice
• (x)(Fx • Dx)
• (x)(Fx ? Dx)
• (x)Fx ? Dx
• (x)(Fx ? Dx)

 

When using the finite universe method for a two-object universe (containing a and b), the statement (x)Fx would be translated as
Multiple Choice
• Fa ? Fb.
• Fa • Fb.
• Fa.
• Fb.

 

When using CP or RAA, UG may not be employed under which of the following conditions?
Multiple Choice
• The instantial constant occurs in the assumption.
• The instantial constant occurs in any line of the proof.
• The instantial constant occurs in the last line of the proof.
• The conclusion of the argument is a conditional.

 

 

 

The finite universe method involves
Multiple Choice
• describing a possible situation where the premises of an argument are true and the conclusion of the argument is true.
• describing a possible situation where the conclusion of the argument is true.
• describing a possible situation where the premises are false.
• describing a possible situation where the premises are true and the conclusion is false.

 

Which of the following is an instance of (x)[Lx ? ($y)(Ly ? Gyx)]?
Multiple Choice
• La ? ($y)(Ly ? Gyx)
• La ? ($y)(Ly ? Gyb)
• La ? ($y)(Ly ? Gya)
• Lx ? ($y)(Ly ? Gyz)

 

 

In logicese, (x)(Fx • Gx) says
Multiple Choice
• everything is both an F and a G.
• anything that is an F is a G.
• for any x, if x is an F then x is a G.
• all Fs are Gs.

 

 

The inference from a = b and Fa to Fb is permitted by
Multiple Choice
• symmetry.
• identity.
• transitivity.
• Leibniz’s law.

 

 

Which of the following cannot be validly inferred from Ba ? Bb?
Multiple Choice
• ($x)Bx ? Bb
• ($x)(Bx ? Bb)
• ~~(Ba ? Bb)
• ($y)(Ba ? By)

 

Which of the following may be validly inferred from ~($x)Fx?
Multiple Choice
• (x)~Fx
• ($x)~Fx
• ($x)Fx
• ~(x)~Fx

 

 

All of the following are well-formed formulas of predicate logic except
Multiple Choice
• (y)(Ay ? ($y)By)
• ((y)Ay ? ($y)By)
• (y)(x)(Ay ? Bx)
• Ay ? Bx

 

 

From (x)($y)(Fx ? Gxy) we may validly infer
Multiple Choice
• ($y)(Fa ? Gay).
• (x)(Fx ? Gxa).
• ($y)(Fy ? Gyy).
• ($y)(Fa ? Gxy).

 

 

In which of the following is the variable “x” free?
Multiple Choice
• ($x)Fx • Gy
• ($x)(y)(Gy ? Fx)
• (x)((Fx • Gx) ? Hx)
• Fx • (x)(Gx ? Hx)

 

 

Which of the following can be inferred from ~a = b by symmetry?
Multiple Choice
• ~b = a
• a = ~b
• b = ~a
• ~b = ~a

 

 

When using the finite universe method for a two-object universe (containing a and b), the statement ($x)Fx would be translated as
Multiple Choice
• Fa ? Fb.
• Fa • Fb.
• Fa.
• Fb.

 

 

The identity rule allows us to
Multiple Choice
• infer that if a property belongs to a thing then it belongs to whatever is identical to that thing.
• enter statements of self-identity as lines in a proof.
• replace one constant or variable with another that is identical with it.
• switch the constants or variables in an identity statement (e.g., from a = b to b = a).

 

 

Where Lxy: x loves y, “Everyone loves someone” is best symbolized as
Multiple Choice
• (x)(y)Lxy.
• ($x)(y)Lxy.
• ($x)(y)Lyx.
• (x)($y)Lxy.

 

 

Which of the following is the best symbolization of “Every number is either odd or even”? (Nx: x is a number; Ox: x is odd; Ex: x is even.)
Multiple Choice
• (x)(Nx ? (Ox • Ex))
• (x)(Nx ? (Ox • Ex))
• (x)(Nx ? (Ox ?Ex))
• (x)(Nx • (Ox ? Ex))

 

 

When using reductio ad absurdum to prove (x)Fx ? ($x)Gx, we begin by assuming
Multiple Choice
• ~(x)Fx ? ($x)Gx.
• (x)Fx.
• ~((x)Fx ? ($x)Gx).
• (x)Fx • ~($x)Gx.

 

 

Which of the following is the best symbolization of “Nothing is unnatural”? (Nx: x is natural.)
Multiple Choice
• ~($x)Nx
• (x)~Nx
• ~(x)~Nx
• ~($x)~Nx

 

 

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