# calcium oxalate

CHEMISTRY DISCUSSION

Respond to these classmates discussion posts. You may use examples or just add to what they have said. (About a paragraph). For each separate post please provide the source that you used.

Classmate 1:

Ksp is the solubility product constant. It is a mathematical equation that is the concentrations of the ions multiplied together, and the concentrations are raised to a power equal to the coefficient of that ion in the balanced equation for the solubility equilibrium. The definition is hard to understand at first, so in real words it is a constant that can measure how much a salt can actually dissociate. Ksp shows how well a compound will dissociate in water. The higher the Ksp, the more soluble the compound is. A real life example of using Ksp is the undertaking of kidney stones. Kidney stones are crystals of calcium oxalate. When calcium and oxalate ion concentrations are too high, the Ksp of calcium oxalate is exceeded and this causes the precipitation of calcium oxalate crystals.

This is the formula for how kidney stones can be made by calcium oxalate. If a person intakes lots of calcium, the concentration of calcium ions increases and the equilibrium will shift left which is what forms the kidney stones.

CaC2O4 (s) ? Ca+2 (aq) + C2O4-2 (aq)

So the Ksp for this would be Ksp= [Ca2][C2O4^-2]

You can think of it like this, the higher the concentrations of the individual ions multiplied together, which means that the Ksp will be higher and the kidney stone could be more readily dissolved in water. Obviously since the more kidney stones you have the more ions can be produced when it dissolves.

Reference: Ebbing, D., & Gammon, S. (2013). Chemical Equilibrium. In General chemistry: Hybrid (10th ed., p. 480-489). Belmont, CA.: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Classmate 2:

Generally when ionic compounds dissolve in water they separate as ions and as the solution gets super saturated with the presence of ions the excess of solid left settles to the bottom and there is an equilibrium formed between the solid that has not dissolved and the dissolved ions present in the solution. As an example when excess of calcium oxalate is presented into solution as it becomes saturated, the following equilibrium is represented as

CaC2O4(s)<—>Ca+2 (aq) + C2O4 -2 (aq)

If we write an equilibrium expression for this situation,

we obtain: Ksp = [Ca+2][C2O4]-2

The solubility product constant (Ksp) is defined as the equilibrium constant for the solubility equilibrium of a marginally soluble ionic compound.

References:

Classmate 3:

Ksp ,also known as the solubility product constant is the equilibrium constant for a solid substance dissolving in an aqueous solution. It represents the level a solute dissolves in a solution. The more stable a substance is, the higher the Ksp will be which in turn the less stable a substance is, the lower the Ksp. To Solve for Ksp it is imperative to take the molarities or concentrations of the products and multiply them. If there are any coefficients in front of any of the products you must raise the product to that coefficient power.

Example:

Fe(OH)3 (s) <===> Fe3+ (aq) + 3 OH� (aq) Ksp = [Fe3+] [OH�]3

Reference:

Solubility Product Constant, Ksp. (n.d.) Retrieved on July 8, 2015 from http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Equilibria/Solubilty/Solubility_Product_Constant,_Ksp

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